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6 - Muhammad's Battle of Badr -- (624 A.D.)

The Battle of Badr and its Consequences (15 March 624 A.D. and following).

6.01 -- Title
6.02 -- The Battle of Badr and its Consequences (15 March 624 A.D. and following)

6.03 -- Test

6.01 -- Muhammad's Battle of Badr -- (624 A.D.)

According to Muhammad Ibn Ishaq (died 767 A.D.) edited by Abd al-Malik Ibn Hisham (died 834 A.D.)

An edited translation from Arabic, originally by Alfred Guillaume

A selection with annotations by Abd al-Masih and Salam Falaki

6.02 -- The Battle of Badr and its Consequences (15 March 624 A.D. and following)

6.02.1 -- How it came to the Battle of Badr*

One day Muhammad heard that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb had returned from Syria, along with a large caravan of the Qurayshites, loaded with many goods. There were thirty to forty men with them. When Muhammad heard that Abu Sufyan was coming from Syria, he called the believers together and said: “A caravan of the Qurayshites loaded with many goods is coming. Go out to confront it! Perhaps Allah will give it to you as booty.”** The people gathered together. Some came quickly, others tarried, because they did not believe that Muhammad would let it come to war. As soon as Abu Sufyan drew near to the Hijaz, he gathered information, questioning every rider in his anxiety, until he finally found out that Muhammad had summoned his companions to come out against him. He then became even more cautious and sent Damdam ibn Amr al-Ghifari as a messenger to Mecca, in order to call the Meccans to come protect their goods, and to tell them that Muhammad and his companions were coming out to attack the caravan. Damdam hurriedly went off to Mecca.

* “Badr” lies approximately 110 km southwest of Medina, not far from the Red Sea.
** In contrast, Peter reported the following of Jesus: “He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the Devil, for God was with Him. And we are witnesses of these things” (Acts 10:38-39).

6.02.2 -- The Dream of the Daughter of Abd al-Muttalib

A reliable man reported to me of ‘Ikrima, who heard it from Ibn ‘Abbas and Jazid ibn Ruman, who in turn told it to ‘Urwa ibn Zuhair: “Atika, the daughter of Abd al-Muttalib, had had a dream three nights before the arrival of Damdam in Mecca that had frightened her. She sent to her brother and let him know that she had had a terrible dream that led her to fear that misfortune would encounter his people. She asked him not to speak further of it. When ‘Abbas asked her what she had dreamed, she replied: “I saw a rider on a camel come here, who then stood standing in the valley. He cried out loudly: ‘Come forth, O you faithless, to meet your doom in three days!’ I then saw how the people flocked to him and followed him into the worship place. While they were standing around him, his camel mounted to the top of the sanctuary. He then called out again: ‘Come forth, O you faithless, to meet your doom in three days!’ Then his camel stood with him on the peak of the mountain Abu Qubais, where he repeated the same call. He then took a stone and threw it down from the mountain. It broke apart, and in every dwelling there fell a piece.””

‘Abbas said: “By Allah, that is a vision! Conceal it and speak with no one of it!” He then left her and encountered his friend Walid ibn ‘Utba ibn Rabi’a. He told him the dream and asked him to keep it secret. But Walid told it to his father, and so it soon became known in all of Mecca. All the Qurayshites talked of it.

“Hereupon I went”, so explained ‘Abbas, “to the worship place, in order to circle it. There sat Abu Jahl with some other Qurayshites, who were discussing the dream of Atika. When he saw me he called: ‘O father of Fadl, when you have circled the holy place then come to us!’ After I finished the circumambulations, I sat down with him. He said: ‘O you sons of Abd al-Muttalib, since when do you have this prophetess among you?’ I asked what that was to mean, and he said: ‘I speak of the vision of Atika.’ I responded: ‘What was it she then saw?’ He continued on: ‘O you sons of Abd al-Muttalib, is it not enough that you men appear as prophets? Do your women then also have to be prophetesses? Atika claims, according to her vision, we will be called to take up arms in three days. Now then, we want to wait three days. If her word is confirmed, then good, when not, we will have a document drawn up stating you are the greatest family of liars among the Arabs.’”

“By Allah”, ‘Abbas continued, “I committed no crime against him, but only denied that Atika had had a vision. After I then separated from him and went further, all of the women of Banu Abd al-Muttalib came to me and said: ‘You have allowed this evil-doer to attack your men. Now he reaches also the women, and you listen to him without getting angry.’” I said: “I did that and in no way did I wrong him. But, by Allah, I will cross his path, and if he does it again, I will see to it that you get your rest from him.”

“On the third day following the dream of Atika, I rose early and was irritated and angry with myself that I had let the opportunity pass to gain satisfaction from Abu Jahl. I went to the sanctuary. As soon as I saw him I went up to him, hoping he would say something similar, giving me grounds to attack him. He was an agile man with sharp features, a sharp tongue and a sharp eye.”

“Suddenly he ran to the door of the sanctuary. I thought to myself, what is the matter with him? Let Allah damn him! Is he afraid that I will revile him? But, behold, he had heard the voice of Damdam, which I myself had not yet heard. This man was in the lower valley, sitting upon a mutilated camel with a turned around saddle. His outer gown was also torn, while he cried out with all his might: ‘O you Qurayshites! The caravans! The caravans! Muhammad and his companions are attacking your property that is with Abu Sufyan. I fear you will not reach them. Help, help!’ This event allowed me to forget him and myself. The people armed themselves immediately and said: ‘Do Muhammad and his companions believe that things will go here as they did with the caravan of Ibn al-Khadrami? Not so, by Allah, they will have another experience.’ The battle-ready throng was made up of two groups. One group departed, the other sent representatives in their place. The Quraysh gathered together and not one of their nobles, except Abu Lahab, remained behind. Abu Lahab sent in his place al-‘As ibn Hisham, who owed him four thousand dinars, which he was not able to pay, and for which he had now to enter war in the place of his creditor. Umaiyya ibn Khalaf also wanted to remain behind. He was an elderly, corpulent and heavy man. But ‘Uqba ibn Abi Mu’ait, carrying a coal censer burning with incense, came up to him, when he was in the mosque sitting between two leaders of his clan, and said to him: ‘Scent yourself with that, father of Ali, for you belong to the women!’ Umaiyya said: ‘May Allah shame you and that which you have brought.’ He then armed himself and went out with the others.”

6.02.3 -- Muhammad's setting out from Medina

Muhammad left Medina with his companions after some of the nights of the month of Ramadan (9th month) had passed.* He appointed Amr to lead the prayers. But once he arrived in Rawha**, he sent Abu Lubaha back to Medina as governor. He gave the banner (which was white) to Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr. In front of Muhammad two black flags were being carried, one by Ali ibn Abi Talib, called ‘Uqab, and the other by a Moslem from Medina. At that time Muhammad had only seventy camels, which his companions rode in turns. He himself traded off with Ali and Marthad ibn Abi Marthad, Hamza with Zaid ibn Haritha, Kabsha and Anas, two freedmen of Muhammad, and Abu Bakr with Umar and Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf. Muhammad placed Qays ibn Sa’saa in charge of the rearguard, a brother of the Banu Mazin.

* Justified and encouraged by Sura al Baqara 2:217, the 83 emigrants and 231 Medinan Moslems set out for the next attack.
** Rawha lies halfway between Medina and Mecca.

Muhammad took the road to Mecca that passed through the ravine of Medina. When he came to Safra, he asked about the names of the two mountains, between which this place lay. He was told the one is called Mukhri (producer of excrement) and the other Muslih (producer of good). And when he asked about the name of the residents, he was told Banu al-Nar (sons of fire) and Banu Huraq (sons of tinder), two branches of the Banu Ghifar. He recognized an ill omen from their names and did not want to remain between them. He left them, as he did Safra, lying to his left, and moved to the right, toward the valley of Dhafiran, where he remained.

Here he heard that the Qurayshites had broken camp to protect their caravan. He shared the information with his people and asked for their advice. Abu Bakr, the truthful, was first to rise and give a pleasant talk. After him Umar spoke some good words, then al-Miqdad ibn Amr. This last one said: “Follow the inspiration of Allah! We are with you. By Allah, we will not say to you as the sons of Israel said to Moses: ‘… Go ahead, you and your Lord, and you two fight; but we will remain here sitting’ (Sura al-Ma’ida 5:24). We say: ‘Go ahead, you and your Lord, and you two fight! And, by him who has sent you with the truth, we will fight with you! If you want to lead us to Birk al-Ghumad (a location in Yemen), we would remain with you until you reach your destination.’” Muhammad thanked him and blessed him for his words.

He then said: “Give me advice, O people!” By that he meant the Medinans, who composed the majority, for when they paid him tribute they had said: “We were not under obligation to protect you until you came to our land. But since then we protected you as we do our fathers and our wives.” From these words he feared they felt obligated to only protect him from enemies that would attack him in Medina, but not against those coming against him from outside of it. Once Muhammad said this, Sa’d ibn Mu’adh answered him: “It appears to me you want to hear our view, messenger of Allah!” “So it is,” Muhammad responded. Sa’d then said: “We believe in you. We hold you to be trustworthy. We recognize that you have revealed the truth to us. We have ceremoniously sworn to obey you. Therefore go forth as you please. We are with you. By Him who has sent you with truth, if you want to cross over a sea with us, we will follow you, and not one man of us will stay behind. We have nothing against your leading us to oppose an enemy tomorrow. We will persevere in war and prove ourselves in battle. Perhaps Allah will let you see deeds from us that delight your eye. Lead us forward with Allah's blessing!” Muhammad was happy to hear these words and thereby grew cheery. He said: “Break forth and receive good news. Allah has promised me one of the two divisions. By Allah, it is as if I already see their bodies stretched out before me.”*

* Jesus had the capability to call forth twelve legions of angels to gain victory over His enemies; but He did not want to destroy them. Rather, He preferred to die in their place as an atoning sacrifice, in order to save them from the eternal wrath of God. (Matthew 26:53).

He then moved on from Dafiran and passed over the hill al-Safir. He then descended down, past the area of Dabba, leaving Hannan on the right. This is a great mound of sand, like a mountain. He then remained in the area of Badr. From here he rode out with one of his companions and encountered, so Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban reported to me, an elderly Bedouin, whom he questioned about the Qurayshites and the Moslems. The old man said: “I will give you no information until you tell me which party you belong to.”

Muhammad responded: “First give me the information; then we will also tell you what you want to know.” “If that is how it is, then know that Muhammad broke camp on this and that day, and if I have been accurately informed, then today he must be in the area of N.N.” In so saying, he named the place where Muhammad had camped. “I have further heard that the Qurayshites set out on this and that day. If that is true, then they must now be in such and such a place.” He named the campsite of the Qurayshites. When he had given this information, he asked again: “Of whom are you?” Muhammad answered: “We are from Maa’ (water) and left him.”*

* In spite of his promise, Muhammad did not tell the old Bedouin the truth, for in holy war trickery and lies are allowed.

Muhammad returned to his companions. Toward evening he sent Ali, Zubair and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas to the water of Badr, in order to gain further information there. There they found, as Jazid ibn Ruman reported to me from ‘Urwa ibn Zubair, Qurayshites, who were there drawing water. Among them was Aslam, a servant of the Banu al-Hajjaj, and Aridh Abu Yasar, a servant of the Banu al-‘As ibn Sa’id. They led them before Muhammad, who was just then praying, and interrogated them. They said: “We have been sent by the Qurayshites to draw water for them.” This information displeased the people, for they had hoped it would be servants of Abu Sufyan. They beat and mistreated them until they finally admitted: “We belong to the people of Abu Sufyan.” Then they let them in peace. After Muhammad had completed his prayer with the prescribed prostrations, he said: “You beat the servants while they were telling the truth, and you left them in peace when they lied to you. By Allah, they were sincere when they said: ‘We belong to the Qurayshites.’”

6.02.4 -- “Give me News of the Qurayshites!”

They said: “They are behind the sand dune that you see in the far height. It is called Aqanqal.” Muhammad asked: “How strong are they?” - “They are numerous.” - How large is their number?” - “That we don't know.” - “How many camels do they slaughter daily?” - “Nine to ten!” - “Then their number must be around 900 to 1,000 men.”

Basbas ibn Amr and Adi ibn Abi al-Zaghba had gone in advance to Badr and dismounted at a hill in the vicinity of the water, where they had taken an old skin to the well to fetch water. They then saw Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani at the well, along with two girls from the town, who did not draw back from the well. He heard how the one said to the other: “If the caravan comes tomorrow or the day after, then I will work for them to pay you your debt.” Majdi said: “You have truly spoken,” making peace among them. When Adi and Basbas got word of this, they returned to Muhammad and reported to him what they had heard. In the meantime Abu Sufyan carefully approached the water site before the caravan and asked Majdi if he had seen anyone. Majdi answered: “I didn't see anything suspicious, only that two riders dismounted behind this hill, took water in the skin and then proceeded on.” Abu Sufyan went to the place where they had stopped and inspected the dung from the camels. When he found date kernels in it he cried out: “”Herein is, by Allah, the feeding of Medina!” He immediately hurried back to his companions, let the caravan deviate from the path in the direction of the bank, so that Badr lay to the left. Then he continued his march in haste.

6.02.5 -- Abu Sufyan's Message to the Qurayshites

Once Abu Sufyan had saved his caravan, he sent word to the Qurayshites: “You have gone out to protect your caravan, your men and your goods! Well, Allah has saved them, so now return home!” But Abu Jahl answered: “We will not turn back! We wish to go to Badr,” - it was there a yearly Arabic festival was held along with a market - “and there we will spend three days, slaughter animals, have the people eat well, drink wine and amuse themselves with lady singers. The Arabs will hear of our processions and our unity and have high regard of us for all time. So now break camp!”

6.02.6 -- The Camp of the Qurayshites in ‘Udwa

The Qurayshites continued their march until they alighted on the backside of the valley behind Aqanqal. The floor of the valley is between Badr and the hill Aqanqal. But the wells of Badr lie on the side of the Yalyal valley that is nearer to Medina. Allah sent rain and the valley, which had a sandy bottom, became moistened, albeit without causing delay to Muhammad and his companions in their march. In the camp of the Quraish, however, it rained so hard that they were not able to advance further. Because of that Muhammad reached the water before they did, and when he came to the next well he camped.

Al-Hubab ibn al-Mundhsir ibn al-Jamuh then asked Muhammad if he had chosen the place to camp by divine inspiration, so that it was not to be changed, or if it was only due to his opinion and war tactic. When Muhammad said to him that he had acted only in accordance with his own judgment, al-Hubbab noticed that the place was not suitable for the encampment. He then said: “Let us advance toward the water located nearest to the enemy and there set up camp.* We will fill up the remaining springs and build a ditch around ours, which we will fill with water. We will then fight against the enemy and have water to drink, while he will have a lack of water.” Muhammad said: “Your advice is good!” He rose immediately and advanced with his people to the well closest to the enemy. Once he had camped there, he had a pool dug around their water spring, had it filled with water, and then had all the drinking vessels cast into it. All the remaining wells he had filled up (i.e. made unusable).

* For the Islamic reformers Jamaluddin al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh and the proponents of free thought, this incident is proof of the fact that a Mos-lem does not have to follow Muhammad in relation to earthly matters.

When morning arrived the Quraishites set themselves in motion. When Muhammad saw them descending from the hill of Aqanqal into the valley, he prayed: “Allah! Here come the Quraishites with their arrogance and their glory-seeking. They fight against you and call your messenger a liar. Allah, you have promised me the victory. Destroy them this morning!” After the enemy was assembled, ‘Umayr ibn Wahb al-Jumahi was sent out to reconnoitre the number of Muhammad's companions. He rode around the troops on his mare, returned again, and said: “There are about 300 men. There would not be many less than or more than this. Yet wait! I will see whether they have laid an ambush or have reinforcements!” He rode through the valley until far off in the distance. Returning back, he said: “I didn't see anything. But know this, you Qurayshites, temptation brings ruin, and the camels of Medina bring sudden death with them. These are people who have no protection and no other refuge than their swords. By Allah, not one of them will fall before he has killed one of yours. If they kill so many of you as there are of them, what joy will life bring to us still? But speak your opinion of this!”

6.02.7 -- The Killing of al-Aswad the Makhzumite

Al-Aswad ibn Abd al-Asad, the Makhzumite, a quarrelsome and evil man, stepped forward and said: “I call Allah to witness that I will either drink from your pool, destroy it, or die before it.” When he had come forward, Hamza left the ranks (of Muhammad) and they fought with each other. Hamza dealt him a blow that severed the middle part of his lower leg before he could reach the water pool. He fell on his back, his blood spurting out toward his companions. He then hobbled to the pool and jumped into it in order to fulfil his oath. But Hamza followed him and killed him in it.*

* Such acts of single combat were still commonplace among the Bedouins 600 years after Christ, just like that between David and Goliath 1000 years before Christ (1 Samuel 17:1-54).

6.02.8 -- ‘Utba Challenges to Individual Combat

Next, ‘Utba ibn Rabi’a with his brother Shaiba and his son Walid stepped forward from the ranks and challenged to individual combat. Three men from among the Helpers went out to meet them: Auf and Mu’awwidh, sons of Harith and ‘Afraa and a third, who some said was called Abd Allah ibn Rawaha. The Quraishites asked: “Who are you?” They said: “Men from among the Helpers!” They then responded: “We have nothing to do with you!” Then the herald of the Qurayshites called out: “O Muhammad! Let men from among our own tribe who are equals come forward!” Muhammad summoned Hamza, Ali and Ubaida ibn al-Harith. When they stated their names before the Qurayshites, these said: “These are noble fighters of equal rank.” Ubaida, who was the oldest of the three, approached ‘Utba, Hamza fought with Shaiba and Ali with Walid. Hamza and Ali quickly killed their opponents. Ubaida and ‘Utba exchanged two blows with one another and wounded each other seriously. Ali and Hamza then fell with their sword upon ‘Utba and killed him and then brought their companion back to his own. *

* Muhammad took over some customs of the Bedouins into Islam, not only in religion but also from their pre-Islamic rules of warfare. The poems of praise as well as of mockery from both sides served as the “opening ceremony” of an armed conflict that was to proceed.

6.02.9 -- The Battle

It was then the warriors stepped forward so that both sides stood close to one another. Muhammad had forbidden his followers from attacking until he had given them the command, and should the enemy come near them they were to drive them back with their arrows. He himself was with Abu Bakr in the hut. The encounter at Badr took place on a Friday morning, the 17th of Ramadan (9th month). On that day Muhammad arranged his ranks with an arrow. As he passed by Sawad ibn Ghazziyya, an ally of the Banu ‘Adi ibn al-Najjar, who was standing before the battle row, he hit him with an arrow on his body and told him: “Stay in line, Sawad!”. He then answered: “You have hurt me, messenger of Allah, and since Allah has sent you with truth and righteousness, so give me satisfaction!” Muhammad uncovered his breast and said: “Take your retaliation!” But Sawad embraced him and kissed his breast. Muhammad asked: “Why do you do this?” He answered: “”O messenger of Allah, you see what awaits us. Therefore this being our last time together I wanted my body to touch yours. The messenger prayed for him and blessed him.

6.02.10 -- Muhammad Implores Allah for Help

After Muhammad had positioned the ranks, he went back to the hut with Abu Bakr. He then pleaded with his Lord to grant him the promised help. He said: “Allah! If this band of men perishes today you will no longer be worshipped.” Abu Bakr said: “O prophet of Allah! You have called to your lord enough. He will surely fulfil his promise!” When Muhammad was in the hut, he trembled mightily. Then he came to himself and said to Abu Bakr: “Receive good news! Allah's help has come. Gabriel has taken hold of the reins of the horse. The dust already covers his feet!”

* Jesus trembled in Gethsemane during his great struggle of prayer. An angel from heaven strengthened Him to drink of the cup of God's wrath in the place of all mankind (Luke 22:41,43). The alleged angel Gabriel, who strengthened Muhammad, rode ahead of the Moslems into battle. He was no spirit of peace, but rather of war.

An arrow killed Mihja, a freedman of Umar ibn al-Khattab. He was the first Moslem to be killed. Then an arrow killed Haritha ibn Suraqa while he was drinking from the pool.

6.02.11 -- Muhammad Spurs his People on to Battle

Then Muhammad went out to the people to spur them on. He said: “By Him in whose hand Muhammad's soul lies, today there will be no one who confronts the enemy and endures in battle out of love for Allah, getting killed while he fights that shall not enter paradise.” Umayr ibn al-Humam, a brother of the Banu Salama, who was just eating some dates he held in his hand, cried out: “Bakh! Bakh!** You mean that between me and paradise there lies only death at the hand of these people?” He then threw the dates away, grabbed his sword and fought until he was killed.

* Martyrdom among Moslems counts as the only sure way to receive a general absolution. Martyrs are supposedly transported to the eternal gardens immediately. Islam knows no atoning sacrifice and no propitiatory substitution, but only self-sacrifice in holy war. Moslems do not know that their own self-sacrifice cannot save them, because every person is a sinner and can only be redeemed by grace. Only the blood of Jesus cleanses from all sin. The shedding of one's own blood is to no avail - not even in holy war. Encouraging Moslems today to die a martyr death is based on a centuries old self-deception.
** “Bakh! Bakh!” are cries of amazement and astonishment.

Auf ibn al-Harith asked Muhammad how man can bring joy to Allah. He answered: “When he plunges forth to the enemy without a coat of mail.” Auf immediately took off his coat of mail, grabbed his sword and went out to fight, until he was killed.*

* Muhammad thoughtlessly gambled with the lives of his men by saying that Allah would rejoice over the death of a Moslem in holy war.

6.02.12 -- Muhammad Slings Sand at the Unbelievers

Muhammad then took up a handful of sand, turned toward the Qurayshites, threw it at them and cried out: “May your faces become disfigured!”* He then commanded his people to charge the enemy, and their defeat was decided. Allah killed some of their nobles and let others be taken captive. While the latter was happening, Muhammad, who was in his hut, and before which Sa’d ibn Muadh and other helpers were keeping watch with girded swords lest the enemy should befall him, noticed that Sa’d was displeased at the action of the people. Therefore he spoke to him: “It appears to me that you are dissatisfied with that which the people here do.” Sa’d answered: “Certainly, messenger of Allah! It is the first defeat that Allah has handed out to the idolaters. Therefore I would have preffered to see them all killed, instead of protected.”

* Muhammad had been branded a sorcerer and a soothsayer by his enemies in Mecca. Here Muhammad gave them an example of his black magic.

6.02.13 -- Muhammad Forbids the Killing of Specific Idolaters

Muhammad said to his companions: “I know that some of the sons of Hashim and others only went out under compulsion and fought against us unwillingly. Therefore let none of you kill one from the Banu Hashim, and also not Abu al-Bakhtari ibn Hisham or my uncle al-‘Abbas, for he, too, went out unwillingly.* Abu Hudhaifa then said: “Should we then kill our fathers, our sons, our brothers and our clansmen, and yet spare al-‘Abbas? By Allah, if I should encounter him, he will taste my sword!” When Muhammad heard this, he said to Umar: “O father of Hafs” - it was the first time Muhammad called him such - “should the face of the uncle of the messenger of Allah be cut to pieces?” Umar answered: “Let me cut off the neck of Abu Hudhaifa; he is a hypocrite!” Abu Hudhaifa later said: “Because of the words I spoke on that day, I no longer felt safe, and I will be in fear until the day comes when I will have atoned for them through martyrdom.” And he actually died a martyr in the battle of Yamama.

* Muhammad practiced family politics and protected his relatives in the bloody fighting. The laws of kinship often play a greater role among Mos-lems than do the religious ordinances of Islam.

The reason Muhammad wanted to spare Abu al-Bakhtari was because when he was still in Mecca al-Bakhtari had protected him and never offended him. He also belonged to those who had been involved in retracting the ostracism against the Banu Hashim and Muttalib. Al-Muhadhdhhar ibn Ziyad al-Balawi encountered him and said: “Muhammad has forbidden us to slay you.” Abu al-Bakhtari then said: “And what about my riding companion?” Beside Abu al-Bakhtari was sitting Junada, the son of Mulaiha, the daughter of Zuhair ibn Harith ibn Asad, who had ridden together with him from Mecca (Junada was from the Banu Laith). Al Muhadhdhar answered: “Muhammad only commanded us to spare you, but your riding companion I will not spare.” - “If that is so,” he replied, “then I prefer to rather die with him than to have the women of Mecca say that I betrayed my riding companion only to spare my own life.” He then recited the following verse:

“A son of the free
betrays not his riding companion
till he's dead
or sees him safely on his way.”

Al-Muhadhdhar then fought against him until he killed him.

6.02.14 -- The Death of Umaiyya ibn Khalaf

Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf said the following: “On the day of Badr I came past Umaiyya while he was standing there with his son Ali holding him by the hand. I was carrying some coats of mail, which I had looted. When he saw me he called out: ‘O Abd Amr!’ But I gave him no answer. Then he called: ‘O Abd Amr!’ I asked: ‘What do you want?’ He said: ‘Do you want to take me prisoner? I am worth more to you than the armour.’ I said: ‘For sure, by Allah,’ then threw aside the armour and grabbed him and his son by the hand. When I came between Umaiyya and his son, he asked me who the man was that wore an ostrich feather on his breast. I answered: ‘It is Hamza.’ He then said: ‘He is the one who acted such and such against us.’ I then led the prisoners away. Then came Bilal, who Umaiyya had tormented in Mecca in order to make him apostatize from Islam. -- He had stretched him out on his back in the hot sand, placed a heavy stone upon his breast and said he had to remain so until he renounced faith in Muhammad. But Bilal had persistently said: ‘One, one.’ -- As soon as Bilal saw him he explained: ‘Your are Umaiyya ibn Khalaf, the leader of the unbelievers. May I myself perish if you are spared!’ I said: ‘O Bilal! Do you want to attack my prisoners?’ He answered: ‘May I die if he is saved!’ I said: ‘Do you hear me, son of a black woman?’ Then Bilal called out with a loud voice: ‘O you warriors for Allah! Here is Umaiyya, the leader of the unbelievers. I myself will die if he is spared!’ At this they all encircled us like an armband, yet I protected Umaiyya. But one of the people struck his son's leg off with the sword, so that he fell, whereupon Umaiyya let out a loud cry such as I had never heard before. I said to him then: ‘Save your soul, by Allah, I can't use you anymore!’ They then struck the two with their swords until they had killed them. Then I said: ‘Allah be merciful to Bilal! All my armour is gone and now he has also deprived me of my prisoners.’”

6.02.15 -- The Killing of Abu Jahl ibn Hisham

Abu Jahl fought that day and recited thereby the following verse:

A continuous battle is dearer to me
than a young, two-year old camel still teething;
for this purpose my mother bore me.

After Muhammad had defeated the enemy, he commanded that Abu Jahl be searched for among those killed. Mu’adh ibn Amr, a brother of the Banu Salama, was the first to find him. He explained: “I heard how people said to Abu Jahl, who was hidden in a thicket: ‘No one shall get to Abu al-Hakam.’”

When I heard this, I thought: “This is my business!” I went to him and once I had penetrated through I attacked him and gave him a thrust that took off his leg halfway below the knee. And, by Allah, he fell as quickly as a date-seed flies apart when it is struck with a rock. His son ‘Ikrima then struck my arm with such a blow that took my hand off, so that it hung on my side only by its skin. The overall tumult of battle then drew me away from him. I continued fighting the entire day dragging my hand behind me. When the pain overcame me, I put my foot on it and pulled until it tore off.

Then Mu’awwidh ibn Afra came by the lame Abu Jahl and struck him until he had seriously wounded him. Yet there was still a spark of life in him. But Mu’awwidh kept on fighting until he killed him. When Muhammad gave the order to search for Abu Jahl among those killed, Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud came up and recognized him, for, as I had heard, Muhammad had said: “If you do not recognize him, search for a scar from a wound on the knee. For while we were both young -- and I was somewhat more tender than he -- we scuffled together at a meal of Abd Allah ibn Judan. I gave him a shove. He fell on his knee and so wounded himself such that it left a permanent scar.” When Abd Allah met him, he was in the last throes of death. He killed him by putting his foot on his neck, for Abd Allah himself had been laid hold of, slapped and mistreated by Abu Jahl in Mecca.

Abd Allah asked him: ‘Has Allah shamed you, you enemy of Allah?’ He responded: ‘With what has He shamed me? I am better than a man you have killed. Tell me, to whom is destiny leaning today?’ Abd Allah answered: ‘To Allah and his messenger!’

Ibn Mas’ud reported that Abu Jahl had said: “You have climbed high, you insignificant shepherd of sheep.” Then I cut off his head, took it to Muhammad and said: “Messenger of Allah, here is the head of Abu Jahl, the enemy of Allah!” Muhammad exclaimed: “By Allah, besides whom there is no god!” (Such was the way Muhammad swore.) I answered: “Yes! By Allah, besides whom there is no god!” I then placed his head between the hands of the Apostle of Allah and he praised Allah.*

* What a difference there is between Muhammad and Jesus, who on the cross prayed for His enemies: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34). Muhammad, however, praised Allah when the head of his arch-enemy Abu Jahl was before him. On the contrary, Jesus taught us to love our enemies, to respect and to pray for them. Stephen, the martyr, prayed in the Spirit of Jesus while he was dying: “Lord, do not charge them with this sin” (Acts 7:60), although he was stoned while innocent.

6.02.16 -- How the Unbelievers Were Cast Into the Well

Muhammad had those that had been killed cast into a well. Only Umaiyya ibn Khalaf was buried beneath earth and stone, for his body had so swelled in his armour that it could not be removed from him. So he alone remained and they left him lying there. When the rest of the bodies were in the well, Muhammad stood before it and cried out: “O you men in the well! Did the promise of your lord come true? I have found the promise of my lord to be truthful.” His companions said: “O messenger of Allah! Do you call to the people who have long since decayed?”* Muhammad responded: “They have come to know that the promise of their Lord is true.”

* The hatred of Muhammad for his enemies reached even beyond their death. He knew of no love for enemies or forgiveness. His words of hatred followed his enemies to their death and very grave.

On this occasion Muhammad said: “O you men in the well, you were bad relatives of your prophet. You called me ‘liar’, while others declared me to be truthful. You drove me away and others took me in. You fought against me while others protected me.”

When, after Muhammad's command had been given and ‘Ut-ba was dragged to the well, Muhammad noticed that the face of his son Abu Hudhaifa appeared entirely contorted and troubled. He said to him: “It looks to me as though you have something on your heart after the death of your father” -- or words to that effect. Abu Hudhaifa responded: “No, by Allah, O messenger of Allah, I have nothing against the death of my father. But I knew him as one who was full of insight and vir-tue. I had hoped that this would lead him to Islam. As I now saw his destiny and despaired of my hope that he would not die an unbeliever, I became sad.” Muhammad blessed him and spoke to him kind words

6.02.17 -- Regarding the Prisoners and Booty of Badr

Muhammad then had everything brought together that the people had taken as booty, and there ensued an exchange of words about it. Those that had taken booty wanted to keep it for themselves. Those that had tracked down and fought the enemy said: “Without us you would not have taken any booty! We held back the enemy fighters from you!” Those who had guarded Muhammad, fearing there might be an enemy attack, said: “You deserve no more than we. We, too, wanted to fight the enemy, when Allah showed us their backs. We then wanted to seize the booty, that no one was protecting, but we feared an attack on the prophet. Therefore we stayed with him. Because of that we have no less entitlement than you.”*

* Disagreements regarding the booty in holy war were an ever repeating matter. Therefore, Muhammad first had all the booty gathered together, and then he had it divided up as he saw fit.

Subsequent to this Muhammad commanded the booty should be handed over. He then returned with the captured idolaters to Medina. Among them was ‘Uqba ibn Abi Mu’ait and Nadr ibn al-Harith. He took the booty with him and entrusted it to Abd Allah ibn Ka’b. Muhammad passed through the narrow pass of Safra and then set up camp on a sand hill called Sa’ir (hell), which lay between the narrow pass and al-Nazih. There he divided out the booty in equal shares. From here he went on to Rawha, where the believers came to him and congratulated him on the victory.

6.02.18 -- The Killing of al-Nadr and ‘Uqba

When Muhammad was in Safra, he ordered Ali to kill al-Nadr ibn al-Harith, and when he came to ‘Irq al-Yabya, ‘Uqba ibn Abi Mu’ait was killed. He had been taken captive by Abd Allah ibn Salama, one of the Banu al-‘Ajlan.*

* Muhammad had his greatest enemies executed. He had much blood on his hands. In contrast, Jesus healed the ear of Malchus. No harm was to result from the hands of His disciples. (John 18:10)

When he heard the command for his execution, he asked: “Who will take care of the children, Muhammad?” He answered: “Hell”. He was killed by ‘Asim ibn Thabit.

Here, Muhammad met Abu Hind, a freedman of Farwa ibn Amr al-Bayadi with a container holding a meal made of dates and milk. He had not participated in the battle of Badr, bud did for all the ensuing battles. He was the cup-holder for Muhammad, who had said of him: “Abu Hind is one of the helpers; relate yourselves by marriage to him!” And so it came about.

Muhammad then proceeded on to Medina and arrived there a day before the prisoners. When the prisoners were brought to Medina, Sawda, the daughter of Zamaas, the wife of Muhammad, found herself among the Banu Afra, who were mourning Awf and Muadh, who had been of their kin. This was before the wives of Muhammad had been commanded to conceal themselves behind a veil. “Suddenly”, so explained Sauda, “the cry rang out: ‘They are bringing the prisoners!’ I returned home, where Muhammad was. In a corner of the room there stood Suhail ibn Amr, with his hands tied behind his neck. When I saw him like that I lost control of myself and cried out: ‘O father of Jazid, you have done deeds of kindness with your hands; you die as noble men!’ But the voice of Muhammad brought me back to my senses, for he called to me from the house: ‘Do you want to stir up dissatisfaction against Allah and His messenger?’ I answered: ‘O messenger of Allah, by him who has sent you with the truth, I was not in control of myself when I saw Abu Jazid tied with his hands to his neck!’” When Muhammad arrived with the prisoners, he divided them up among his companions and said they should treat them well. Among the prisoners was Abu ‘Aziz ibn ‘Umayr. Mus’ab went over to him when one of the helpers took him prisoner and said to him: “Bind him firmly! His mother has wealth. Perhaps she will redeem him.” His mother then asked for the highest ransom that had been paid for a Qurayshite, and she was told: 4000 Dirham. She sent this sum and thereby redeemed him.

6.02.19 -- How News of the Defeat Reached Mecca

The first one to bring news to Mecca of the defeat of the Qurayshites was Haisuman ibn Abd Allah al-Khuza’i. They asked him: “What are you bringing?” He said: “Utba, Shaiba, Abu al-Hakam, Umaiyya, Zama’a, Nubaih, Munabbih and Abu al-Bakhtari have been killed!” When he thus named the noble Qurayshites, Safwan ibn Umaiyya, who sat in the sanctuary, said: “By Allah, if this man still has his senses then ask him also about me!” They asked: “What about Safwan ibn Umaiyya?” He answered: “He is sitting there in the sanctuary, but I saw how his father and his brother were killed.” Abu Lahab had not gone out to Badr, but had sent al-Asi ibn Hisham as his proxy. The others who stayed behind had also done the same. When he received news of the defeat of the Quraysh, he was very taken back and ashamed.

6.02.20 -- The Capturing of Abu al-‘As ibn Rabi’

Among the prisoners there was also Abu al-‘As ibn Rabi’, the son-in-law of Muhammad, the husband of his daughter Zaynab. He was regarded by some of those in best position to be a rich merchant and an honest man. His mother was Hala, the daughter of Khuwailid. Khadija was his aunt. She had entreated Muhammad to give him Zainab as his wife, and since he did not oppose her -- this was before his sending -- he consented, and Khadija viewed him as her son. When Allah, in His grace, bestowed upon His messenger the office of prophet, Khadija believed in him. Her daughters, too, took up his faith and confessed to Islam. Abu al-‘As, however, stuck to polytheism, and also ‘Utba ibn Abi Lahab, to whom Muhammad had given his daughter Ruqayya or Umm Kulthum as wife. When he confronted the Qurayshites with the command of Allah and appeared as their opponent, they said: “You have relieved Muhammad of his troubles; give him back his daughters so that he can deal with them!” They first went to Abu al-‘As and said to him: “Separate yourself from your wife. We will give you any woman of the Quraysh you like in place of her.” He answered, “By Allah, I will not separate from my wife and I will not exchange her for any other.” They then directed the same words to ‘Utba, and he said: “If you give me the daughter of Aban ibn Sa’id or the daughter of Sa’id ibn al-‘As, then I will separate myself from the daughter of Muhammad.” They then gave him the daughter of Said to be his wife, and he dismissed the daughter of Muhammad before he had consummated the marriage. Allah freed her from his power to her honour and to his shame. She became the wife of Uthman ibn ‘Affan. Muhammad did not have the authority in Mecca to permit or to forbid anything. He had to tolerate everything, and thus his daughter Zainab was divorced from her husband through Islam, although he did not have the power to take her from him. So she remained with him as a believer while he was still an idolater, which lasted until the immigration of Muhammad. When the Quraysh went out to Badr, he was among them. There he was taken captive and remained with Muhammad in Medina.

When the Meccans sent people to Medina to redeem the prisoners, Zainab also sent money to redeem her husband, Abu al-‘As. She sent a necklace, which Khadija had given to her on her wedding day. When Muhammad saw this he was touched, and said: “If you want, so give her back the prisoner, along with all that she sent for his ransom.” His companions complied, and returned her husband and everything else to her.

6.02.21 -- Zainab's Departure to Medina

Muhammad had made Abu al-‘As promise, or he had done it of his own free will -- it is not known exactly, for neither of the two talked about it -- to let Zainab go to Medina. It is only certain that, after the release of Abu al-‘As, Muhammad immediately sent away one of the helpers with Zaid ibn Haritha and said to him: “Go to the Yajaj Valley and wait there until Zainab passes by. Then keep her company and bring her to me.”

They left immediately thereafter. Approximately one month had passed since the encounter at Badr. Once Abu al-‘As arrived in Mecca, he commanded Zainab to go to her father, whereupon she went out to gather the necessary things for the travel. Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr reported to me that he had heard how Zainab explained: “While I made preparation in Mecca to travel to my father, I met Hind, the daughter of ‘Utba, who said: ‘O daughter of Muhammad, I have heard that you will travel to your father.’ - ‘That is not my intention!’ ‘Do not be a hypocrite, cousin! If you need anything to make the trip pleasant, whether gold or something else, tell me. I can give it to you. Do not think badly of me, for we women feel differently among one-another than do men.’ Although it appeared to me that she really wanted to do what she had said, I still feared her, and so denied my intention. The necessary things I procured myself.” When Zainab was ready to travel, her brother-in-law, Kinana ibn Rabi’a led a camel to her. She climbed into the sedan, and he took his bow and quiver and led the camel in broad day-light out of the city. The Qurayshites spoke about this event and went out to bring her back. They reached her in Dhu Tawa. The first to meet up with her was Habbar ibn al-Aswad ibn al-Muttalib, the Fihrite. He frightened her with his spear, causing her to have a miscarriage. Her brother-in-law knelt down before her, laid his arrows to the side and said: “By Allah! If a man so much as approaches her he will get my arrow!” At that the people stepped back.

Then came Abu Sufyan with others of the noble Quraysh and said: “Leave off with your arrow so that we can talk with you!” When he turned his bow away, Abu Sufyan came to him and said: “You did not act wisely. You went out with the woman publicly for all to see. You well know what misfortune has encountered us and what we have suffered from Muhammad. If you so openly go out from our midst together with his daughter, the people will surely say that we have been humbled and brought low by our defeat, so that we have to endure every-thing out of weakness and helplessness. Therefore turn back with the woman until this talk of the people ceases. We do not want to keep her back from her father and have no reason to. As soon as the people say we have brought her back, you can take her away secretly and lead her to her father.” Kinana agreed to this and stayed several nights until the talk died down. Then he led her by night out of the city and took her to Zaid and his companion, who took her to Muhammad.

Muhammad once sent some people out for a military campaign and said: “if you get a hold of Habbar or the man who first got to Zainab with him, burn them with fire. The next morning he sent someone to tell them he had rescinded his order, while it was only Allah's right to punish people with fire. They were “only” to kill them.

6.02.22 -- The Conversion of Abu al-As ibn Rabi’

Abu al-‘As, the son-in-law of Muhammad, remained in Mecca. Because of Islam he was separated from his wife, who remained in Medina, until shortly before the conquest of Mecca. One day he took his own money and that of others to pursue some trading opportunities in Syria, for the Quraysh placed great trust in him. On the way back he was met by a war party Muhammad had sent out, who took everything away from him. He himself escaped. After the troops had returned to Medina, he went by night to his wife Zainab, where he pleaded with her for protection, which she also granted him. He had come to get back his merchandise.

While Muhammad was performing the Morning Prayer and had spoken the words: “Allah is greater”, Zainab called out from the women's bench. “O you people, understand that I have taken Abu al-‘As under my protection.” When Muhammad had completed the prayer, he turned to the congregation and asked: “O you people, did you hear what I heard?” When they answered his question affirmatively, he continued on: “By Him in whose power Muhammad's soul lies, I knew nothing of this until I just now heard what you even just heard. Assuredly, even the least is entitled to provide protection for someone.” He went to his daughter and said to her: “Treat him with respect, but no familiarity is allowed you with him.”

Muhammad then sent to those who had taken part in the sending and raiding of the goods of Abu al-‘As, and had it told them: “You know how near this man stands to us. If you want, then give him, for our sake, the stolen goods back. If not, then consider it to be your well-earned booty that Allah has given you.” The people said they were ready to give it all back, which they also did - even buckets, small leather bottles, washbasins and a piece of wood onto which the travelling bags had been attached, so that in the end he missed nothing. He brought everything to Mecca and gave to the Qurayshites and others all that was due them. He then asked if any-one still had a demand of him, and they said: “No, may Allah reward you! You have acted faithfully and nobly toward us.” At this he replied: “I confess that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. For that purpose I did not convert to Islam when I was with him, for I feared you might think I did it with the desire to acquire your possessions. Now that Allah has given it back to you and I am free, I shall become a Moslem.” After this he left Mecca and went to Muhammad.”

6.02.23 -- The Conversion of ‘Umayr ibn Wahb

Shortly after the defeat at Badr, ‘Umayr ibn Wahb al-Jumani sat with Safwan ibn Umaiyya. ‘Umayr was one of the satans* of the Quraysh and one of those who had persecuted Muhammad and his followers the most in Mecca. His son Wahb had been taken captive in Badr. He now spoke of their defeat and of the fate of those who had been thrown into the well. Safwan said: “By Allah, life has no more value after such a loss!” ‘Umayr responded: “You are right, by Allah. If it were not for a debt encumbering me, that I cannot pay, and a family that would perish without me, I would go to Muhammad and kill him. I would have a good excuse for it, for my son is being held prisoner in Medina. Safwan seized the opportunity and said: “I will take responsibility for paying your debt. Your family lives with mine. I will support it as long as it exists. They will not lack anything that I possess.” ‘Umayr responded: “Hold that about which we have spoken a secret!” Safwan spoke with no one about it. ‘Umayr had his sword sharpened and poisoned and went off to Medina.

* The most persistent and malicious opponents of Muhammad were called “Satans of the Quraysh”. Khomenei was not the one to invent such an expression. With his words he was only following in the footsteps of Muhammad (Sura al-Baqara 2:14).

While Umar was conversing with other believers about the day of Badr, speaking both of the grace of Allah as well as of the defeat of the enemy, he saw ‘Umayr, with sword at his side, waiting before the door of the mosque. He said: “This dog and enemy of Allah, ‘Umayr ibn Wahb, must assuredly have something evil in mind. He has stirred up hostility and showed an evil countenance on the day of Badr. He then went to Muhammad and informed him of the arrival of ‘Umayr. Muhammad said: “Lead him to me!” Umar grabbed him by the belt of his sword and dragged him to Muhammad, saying to the helpers who were with him: “Go to Muhammad! Sit with him and protect him from this evildoer, for I do not trust him.” When he brought him before Muhammad, holding onto the sheath of his sword, Muhammad said: “Let him go!” He al-lowed ‘Umayr to come nearer. Umayr wished him “good morning.” This was the customary greeting during the time of paganism. Muhammad said: “Allah has given to us a better greeting. We greet with “Salam”*, as do the dwellers in paradise.” -- “By Allah, Muhammad, I am still a newcomer.” -- “Why have you come?” -- “To ask you to treat my imprisoned son well.” -- “And what is the meaning of the sword hanging around your neck?” -- “Allah damn it! Has it been any good to me?” -- “Tell me the truth! Why have you come?” -- “Only for the reason I told you.” -- “Not so! You sat with Safwan in the sanctuary. You spoke about the men who were cast into the well. You swore that if your debt and family did not hold you back, you would kill me. Safwan then took responsibility for your debt and your family, so that you could kill me. But Allah has placed himself between you and the carrying out of your intention.” ‘Umayr then said: “I testify that you are the messenger of Allah. We held you to be a liar because of the revelation you brought from heaven. When I talked with Safwan no one was present! Only Allah could have imparted this to you! May Allah be praised who in this manner has led me to Islam!” He then made a sincere confession, and Muhammad said to those present: “Instruct your brother in the faith. Let him read the Qu’ran and let his son go free!” This happened immediately. ‘Umayr then said: “O messenger of Allah, I have made effort to extinguish the divine light. I have grievously vexed the believers. Allow me to return to Mecca. I want to call the Meccans to Allah, to His messenger and to Islam. Perhaps Allah will lead them, and when not I will be hostile to them in their faith as I until now was hostile to your companions.” Muhammad permitted it to him, and he returned to Mecca. Safwan had said after the departure of ‘Umayr: “Anticipate in a few days an event that will cause the battle of Badr to be forgotten.” He made inquiries of all caravans about ‘Umayr, until he finally heard that he had gone over to Islam. He then swore to never again talk with him and never again be useful to him. ‘Umayr called the Meccans to Islam and became the most embittered enemy of those who did not listen to him. Many were converted through him.

* According to Suras al-A’raf 7:46, Yunus 10:10 and al-Ahzab 33:44, along with other verses, the Islamic greeting “Salamun alaikum” stems from paradise.

6.02.24 -- Regarding the Revelation of the eighth Sura “Al-Anfal” (the Spoils of War)

After the encounter at Badr, Allah revealed the entire Sura 8 “the Spoils*.” Consequent to the arguments regarding the dividing up of the spoils, the following verse appeared: “They question you about the spoils. Say: ‘The spoils belong to Allah and the messenger; so fear Allah, and set things right between you, and obey Allah and His messenger, if you are believers” (Sura al-Anfal 8:1). According to what I was told, Ubada ibn al-Samit said, while talk of the sura “the Spoils” was going on: “It appeared in relation to us, the fighters at Badr, while we were not in agreement. Thereby Allah tore the wicked passion from our hearts, in that He gave the spoils to the messenger of Allah, who divided it up equally. Because of that we became god-fearing, obedient to Allah and His messenger, peaceable.”

* The taking of booty became the driving force behind the Islamic campaigns of conquest. Muhammad thereby sanctioned the Bedouin practices, incorporating robber attacks and treacherous murder into holy war.

6.02.25 -- The Names of the Moslems who were Present at Badr

Of the Banu Hashim: Muhammad, the messenger of Allah; Hamza, the lion of Allah and of his prophet; Ali ibn Abi Talib (later he became the fourth Caliph); Zaid ibn Haritha, the Kalbite; Anasa and Abu Kabsha, the freedmen of Muhammad (Anasa was an Abyssinian and Abu Kabsha a Persian); Abu Marthad Kannaz ibn Hisn and his son Marthad, two allies of Hamza; Ubaida ibn al-Harith and his brothers Tufail and Husain; Mistah, whose name was Auf; Ibn Uthatha ibn Abbad ibn al-Muttalib -- altogether 12 men.

Of the Banu Abd Shams: Uthman ibn ‘Affan (later he became the third Caliph), who remained behind with his wife Ruqayya, the daughter of Muhammad, yet to whom Muhammad also gave a share of the booty. When he asked about his reward, Muhammad answered: “You will also have your reward in paradise.” Furthermore: Abu Hudhaifa ibn ‘Utba and his freedman Salim (Abu Hudhaifa was called Mihsham, and Salim was a freedman of Thubaita, the daughter of Jaar, who then also adopted Abu Hudhaifa as a son. According to others, Thubaita was the wife of Abu Hudhaifa or Salim was a freedman of Abu Hudhaifa himself). Subaih, a freedman of Abu al-‘As ibn Umaiyya, took measures to go out with Muhammad, yet became ill. He loaned his camel to Abu Salama ibn Abd al-Asad. Subaih also took part in the ensuing battles.

Of the allies of the Banu Abd Sham, the following: Abd Allah ibn Jahsh, Ukkasha ibn Mihsan, Shudja’ ibn Wahb and his brother Uqba, Jazid ibn Ruqaysh, Abu Sinan ibn Mihsan, a brother of Ukkasha and his son Sinan, Muhriz ibn Nadhla, Rabi’a ibn Aktham.

Of the allies of the Banu Kabir: Thaqf ibn Amr and his brothers Malik and Mudlij, who belonged to the Banu Hajr; the Clan of the sons of Sulaim; and Abu Makhshi, one of their allies

-- in all 16 men (Abu Makhshi was from the tribe Ta’iyy; his name was Suwaid ibn Makhshi).

Of the Banu Nawfal were present: ‘Utba ibn Ghazwan and his freedman Khabbab.

Of the Banu Asad: Zubair ibn al-Awwam, Hatib ibn Abi Balta’a and his freedman Sa’d (Abu Balta’a was called ‘Amr and was a Lakhmite, Sa’d was a Kalbite).

Of the Banu Abd al-Dar: Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr and Suwaybit ibn Sa’d.

Of the Banu Zuhra: Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, together with his brother ‘Umayr. Of their allies there were: Al-Miqdad ibn Amr, Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, Mas’ud ibn Rabi’a, of the Qara (Qara is a nickname. They were archers, and of them it is said: “The Qara hit whomever they aim at.”) Dhu al-Shimalain ibn Abd Amr - his name was ‘Umayr and he was called Dhu al-Shimalain, literally the one who has two left hands, because he used his left hand for everything - and Khabbab ibn al-Aratt -- a total of 8 men. (Khabbab was from the Banu Tamim, and his descendants are still present in Kufa; according to others he was from Khuzaa.)

Of the Banu Tamim: Abu Bakr (later he became the first Caliph) and his freedman Bilal ibn Ribah, Amir ibn Furaira (he was a black man, who was born a slave to the Banu Asad, who sold him to Abu Bakr), and Suhaib ibn Sinan, of Namir ibn Qasit (according to others Suhaib was a freedman of Abd Allah ibn Judan. It was said that he was a Greek, according to others he was from Namir, was taken captive by Greeks, who again sold him. Muhammad is supposed to have said: Suhaib went before the Greeks), and Talha ibn ‘Ubaid Allah. He had been in Syria and only came back after the encounter at Badr (he spoke with Muhammad, who not only gave him his share of the booty, but also the assurance that he would receive his reward) -- a total of 5 men.

Of the Banu Makhzum: Abu Salama Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Asad, Shammas ibn Uthman, al-Arqam ibn Abi al-Arqam, Abd Manaf ibn Asad Abi Jundub, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir (he was an Ausite from Madshij), and Mu’attib ibn ‘Auf, who was called Aihama -- a total of 5 people.

Of the Banu ‘Adi ibn Ka’b: Umar ibn al-Khattab (later he became on the second Caliph), his brother Zaid and his freedman Mihja, the first Moslem at Badr that was killed by an arrow (he was the son of Akks), Amr ibn Suraqa and his brother Abd Allah and their allies Waqid ibn Abd Allah, Khauli and Ma-lik ibn Khauli (of the Banu Idjl ibn Lujaim), Amir ibn Rabi’a of Anz ibn Wa’il, Amir Aqil, Khalid and Ijas, sons of Bukair, of the Banu Sa’d ibn Laith, allies of the Banu ‘Adi. Furthermore: Sa’id ibn Zaid, who came from Syria after the encounter at Badr and received from Muhammad a portion of the booty and the assurance of a future reward -- a total of 14 persons.

Of the Banu Jumah: Uthman ibn Maz’un, along with his son al Sa’ib and his brothers Qudama and Abd Allah and Ma’mar ibn al-Harith -- a total of 5 persons.

Of the Banu Sahm ibn Amr: Khunais ibn Khudhafa.

Of the Banu Amir ibn Lu’ayy: Abu Sabra ibn Abi Ruhm, Abd Allah ibn Makhrama, Abd Allah ibn Suhail, who went out with his father and at Badr went over to Muhammad and fought at his side. ‘Umayr ibn Auf, a freedman of Suhail and Sa’d ibn Khawla, a freedman of the Banu Amir (from Yemen) -- a total of 5 persons.

Of the Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr: Abu Ubaida Amir ibn al-Jarrah, Amr ibn al-Harith, Suhail ibn Wahb and his brother Safwan, Sons of the Baida’ and Amr ibn Abi Sarh -- 5 persons.

The entire number of the IMMIGRANTS (who had emigrated from Mecca and were at Badr and to whom Muhammad gave a portion of the booty and assured of a future reward) was 83. (Many other scholars also include to this number: Wahb ibn Sa’d and Hatib Ibn Amr, of the Banu Amir ibn Lu’ayy, and Iyad ibn Abi Zuhair, of the Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr.)

From the Medinan HELPERS at Badr there were from the AUSITES:

Of the Banu Abd al-Ashhal: Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, Amr ibn Mu’adh, Harith ibn Aus, Harith ibn Anas.

Of the Banu Ubayd ibn Ka'b: Sa’d ibn Zaid, Salama ibn Salaama, Abbad ibn Bishr, Salama ibn Thabit, Raafi’ ibn Jazid, Harith ibn Khazama, an ally of the Banu Auf. Muhammad ibn Masluma and Salama ibn Aslam, two allies of the Banu Haritha, Abu al-Haitham and ‘Ubaid ibn al-Tayyihan (according to others ‘Atik ibn al-Tayyihan) and Abd Allah ibn Sahl (a brother of Banu Zaura, according to others a Ghassanid) -- in all 15 persons.

Of the Banu Sawaad ibn Ka’b, who was called Zafr: Qatada ibn al Nu’man and ‘Ubaid ibn Aus -- 2 men. (The latter was called Muqarrin, because at Badr he had bound together four prisoners. It is he also that on that day captured Aqil ibn Abi Talib.)

Of the Banu Abd ibn Razaah: Nasr ibn al-Harith, Mu’attab ibn Abd and Abd Allah ibn Tariq, one of their allies from Bali -- in all 3 men.

Of the Banu Haritha ibn al-Harith: Mas’ud ibn Sa’d (according to others ibn Abd Sa’d), Abu Abs ibn Jabr and of their allies: Abu Burda Hani ibn Niyar, of Bali -- in all 3 persons.

Of the Banu Dubai’a ibn Zaid: ‘Asim ibn Thabit, Qays Abu al-Aqlah ibn ‘Isma, Mu‘attib ibn Qushair, Abu Mulail ibn al-Az‘ar and Sahl ibn Hunaif -- in all 5 men.

From the Banu Umaiyya ibn Zaid ibn Malik: Mubashshir ibn Abd al-Mundhir and his brother Rifa’a, Sa’d ibn Ubaid, ‘Uwaim ibn Sa’ida, Raafi’ ibn ’Unjuda, which, according to ibn Hisham, was the name of his mother, ‘Ubaid ibn Abi ‘Ubaid and Tha’laba ibn Hatib. It was maintained that Abu Lubaba and Harith ibn Hatib had gone out with Muhammad, but had been sent back by him to Medina, the latter as governor of Medina. Both received a share of the spoils -- a total of 9 men (Muhammad sent them back from Rawha, as well as Hatib ibn Amr; the name of Lubabas was Bashir).

Of the Banu ‘Ubaid ibn Zaid ibn Malik: Unais ibn Qatada and from their allies from Bali: Ma’n ibn Adi, Thabit ibn Aqram, Abd Allah ibn Salama, Zaid ibn Aslam and Rib’i ibn Rafi. Asim ibn Adi had also gone out, but Muhammad had sent him back and granted him his share of the booty -- in all 7 men.

Of the Banu Tha’laba ibn Amr ibn Auf: Abd Allah ibn Jubair, Asim ibn Qays, Abu Dayyah ibn Thabit, Abu Hanna (he was a brother of Abu Dayyah; according to others he was called “Abu Habba”), Salim ibn ‘Umayr, al-Harith ibn al-Nu’man, Khawwat ibn Jubair, who also received from Muhammad his share, just as the fighters at Badr received -- in all 7 persons.

Of the Banu Jahjaba ibn Kulfa ibn Auf: Mundhir ibn Muhammad, and from their allies of the Banu Unaif: Abu ‘Uqail ibn Abd Allah -- 2 men; according to others: Taim ibn Irash and Qasmil ibn Faran.

Of the Banu Ghanm ibn al-Salm: Sa’d ibn Khaithama, Mundhir ibn Qudama and Malik ibn Qudama, Harith ibn Arfaja and Tamim, one of their freedmen -- 5 men. (He was a freedman of Sa’d ibn Khaithama).

Of the Banu Mu’awiya ibn Malik: Jabr ibn Atik and one of their freedmen from Muzaina, Malik ibn Numaila, and another freedman of Bali, Nu’man ibn Asar -- 3 persons.

In all there were 61 Ausites with Muhammad in Badr, including those who were given a share of the spoils and who were promised a reward.

Also from the Medinan HELPERS at Badr there were of the KHAZRAJITES:

Of the Banu Imri al-Qays ibn Malik (from the Banu al-Harith ibn al-Khazraj): Kharija ibn Zaid, Sa’d ibn Rabi’, Abd Allah ibn Rawaha, und Khallad ibn Suwaid -- 4 persons.

Of the Banu Zaid ibn Malik: Bashir and Simak ibn Sa’d -- 2 men.

From the Banu ‘Adi ibn Ka’b ibn Khazraj: Subay’ ibn Qays and Abbad ibn Qays and Abd Allah ibn Abs -- 3 persons.

Of the Banu Ahmar ibn Haritha: Jazid ibn al-Harith, called Ibn Fushum -- 1 man (Fushum was the name of his mother, who belonged to the Banu al-Qain ibn Jisr).

Of the Banu Jusham ibn al-Harith and Zaid ibn al-Harith, the two were twin brothers: Khubaib ibn Isaf, Abd Allah ibn Zaid and his brother Huraith ibn Zaid, and, so it is thought, al-so Sufyan ibn Bishr -- 4 men.

Of the Banu Jidara: Tamim ibn Ya'aar, Abd Allah ibn ‘Umayr, Zaid ibn al-Muzayyin and Abd Allah ibn Urfuta -- 4 men.

Of the Banu al-Abjar ibn Auf, who are the Banu Khudra: Abd Allah ibn Rabi’a -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Auf ibn al-Khazraj, and from the Banu ‘Ubaid ibn Malik, who were called Banu al-Hublah: Abd Allah ibn Abd Al-lah ibn Ubai, who was known under the name of Ibn Shalul, whose mother was Ubais, and Aws ibn Khawli -- 2 men.

Of the Banu Jaz' ibn Adi ibn Maalik: Zaid ibn Wadi'a, and Uqba ibn Wahb, one of their freedmen of the Banu Abd Allah ibn Ghatafan, and Rifa’a ibn Amr, and 'Amir ibn Salama, another freedman from Yemen (according to others his name was 'Amr ibn Salama, of Bali, from Quda’a) and Abu Humaida Ma’bad ibn Abbad (Ubada) and 'Aamir ibn al-Bukair, a freed-man (according to others 'Aamir ibn al-Ukair, or Aasim ibn al-Ukair) -- 6 men.

Of the Banu Saalim ibn Auf (from the Banu al-'Ajlan ibn Zaid), Nawfal ibn Abd Allah -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Asram ibn Fihr: Ubada ibn al-Samit and his brother Aus ibn al-Samit -- 2 men.

Of the Banu Da’d ibn Fihr: Al-Nu’man ibn Malik, called Qawqal -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Quryuush (or Quryuus) ibn Ghanm: Thabit ibn Hazzal -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Mardakhah ibn Ghanm: Malik ibn al-Dukhshum -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Lawdhan ibn Saalim: Rabi’a ibn Iyaas and his brother Waraqa ibn Iyaas, and Amr, a freedman (according to others also a brother of Rabi’as) -- 3 men.

In addition: of their allies from Bali, and of the Banu Udayna (Udayna was the name of their mother, their father was called Amr ibn Umara): Al-Mujadhdhar ibn Dhiaad (his name was Abd Allah), Ubada ibn al-Khashkhaash, Nahhab ibn Tha’laba (according to others Bahhaath) and Abd Allah ibn Tha’laba; some maintain, ‘Utba ibn Rabi’a, one of their allies, from Bahra, had also been present at Badr (others maintain the latter's name was ‘Utba ibn Bahz and was from the Banu Sulaim) -- in all 5 men.

Of the Banu Saa’ida ibn Ka’b (from the Banu Tha’laba ibn al-Khazraj): Abu Dujana Simaak ibn Kharasha (or ibn Aus ibn Kharasha) and al-Mundhir ibn Amr -- 2 men.

Of the Banu al-Badi ibn Amir: Abu Usayd Maalik ibn Rabi’a and Maalik ibn Mas’ud -- 2 men.

Of the Banu Tariif ibn al-Khazraj: Abd Rabbihi ibn Haqq -- 1 man. And from their allies of Juhaina: Ka’b ibn Himaar (or ibn Jammaz, he was from Ghubshan), Damra, Ziyad and Basbas, the sons of Amr (others say Damra and Ziyad were sons of Bishr) and Abd Allah ibn 'Aamir, from Bali -- in all 5 men.

Of the Banu Haraam (a branch of the Banu Salama): Khiraash ibn al-Sammah, al-Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, ‘Umayr ibn al-Humam, Tamim (a freedman of Khirash), Abd Allah ibn Amr, Mu’aadh ibn Amr, Mu’awwidh ibn Amr, Khallaad ibn Amr, ‘Ut-ba ibn Aamir, Habib ibn Aswad (one of their freedmen), Thabit ibn Tha’laba and ‘Umayr ibn al-Haarith -- in all 12 men.

Of the Banu ‘Ubaid ibn Adi (from the Banu Khansa' ibn Sinan ibn 'Ubaid): Bishr ibn al-Baraa', al-Tufail ibn Maalik, al-Tufail ibn al-Nu’maan, Sinaan ibn Saifi, Abd Allah ibn al-Jadd, ‘Utba ibn Abd Allah, Jabbar ibn Sakhr, Khaarija and Abd Allah ibn Humair (two allies of the Banu Duhmaan) -- 9 men. Of the Banu Khunaas ibn Sinaan: Yaziid ibn al-Mundhir and Ma’qil ibn al-Mundhir, Abd Allah ibn al-Nu’maan, al-Dhahhaak ibn Haaritha, Sawaad ibn Zuraiq (according to others ibn Rizn), Ma’bad ibn Qays and Abd Allah ibn Qays -- 7 persons.

Of the Banu Nu’man ibn Sinan ibn Ubaid: Abd Allah ibn Abd Manaaf, Jaabir ibn Abd Allah, Khulaida ibn Qays and Nu’maan ibn Yasaar (one of their freedmen) -- 4 men.

Of the Banu Sawaad ibn Ghanm (from the Banu Hadida ibn Amr): Abu al-Mundhir Yazid ibn Amir, Sulaim ibn Amr, Qutba ibn Aamir, and 'Antara ibn Amr (a freedman of Sulaim) -- 4 persons.

Of the Banu ‘Adi ibn Naabi ibn Amr: Abs ibn Aamir, Tha’laba ibn Ghanama, Abu al-Yasar (who is Ka’b ibn Amr), Sahl ibn Qays, Amr ibn Talq, Mu’aadh ibn Jabal -- 6 men. (Ibn Ishaq had maintained: Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, Abd Allah ibn Unais and Tha’laba ibn Ghanama were all members of the Banu Sawaad and were those who smashed the idols of the Banu Salima. But Mu’aadh ibn Jabal was not of the Banu Sawaad, although Ibn Ishaq reckoned him so, because he belonged to the Banu 'Adi.)

Of the Banu Mukhallad ibn 'Aamir ibn Zuraiq (according to others ibn al-Azraq): Qays ibn Muhssan (according to others Ibn Hissn), Abu Khalid Harith ibn Qays, Jubair ibn Iyaas, Abu Ubada Sa’d ibn Uthman and his brother Uqba ibn Uthman, Dhakwan ibn Abd Qays and Mas'uud ibn Khalada -- 7 men.

Of the Banu Khaalid ibn Amir ibn Zuraiq: Abbaad ibn Qays -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Khalada ibn Aamir ibn Zuraiq: As'ad ibn Yaziid, al-Faakih ibn Bischr (according to others ibn Busr), Mu’aadh ibn Maa'iss, his brother 'Aa'id ibn Maa'iss and Mas’uud ibn Sa’d -- 5 men.

Of the Banu al-Ajlan ibn Amr: Rifa’a ibn Raafi’ and his broth-er Khallad ibn Raafi’ and ‘Ubaid ibn Zaid -- 3 men.

Of the Banu Bayaada ibn Amr: Ziyaad ibn Labiid, Farwa ibn Amr, Khaalid ibn Qays, Rujaila ibn Tha’laba (according to oth-ers he was called Rukhaila), ‘Attiyya ibn Nuwaira and Khulaifa ibn Adi (called according to others Ulaifa) -- 6 men.

Of the Banu Habib ibn Abd Haaritha: Raafi’ ibn al-Mu’alla -- 1 man.

Of the Banu al-Najjar (who is Taimallah of the Banu Tha’laba ibn Abd Auf): Abu Ayyuub Khaalid ibn Yaziid -- 1 man.

Of the Banu 'Usairah ibn Abd 'Auf: Thaabit ibn Khaalid -- 1 man.

Of the Banu 'Amr ibn Abd 'Auf: 'Umaarah ibn Hazm and Su-raaqa ibn Ka’b -- 2 men.

Of the Banu ‘Ubaid ibn Tha’laba ibn Ghanm: Haaritha ibn al-Nu’man and Sulaim ibn Qays -- two men.

Of the Banu Aa'idh ibn Tha’laba ibn Ghanm (called according to others 'Aabid): Suhail ibn Raafi’ and 'Adi ibn al-Zaghba' (one of their allies from Juhaina) -- 2 men.

Of the Banu Zaid ibn Tha’laba: Mas’uud ibn Aus, Abu Khu-zaima ibn Aus and Raafi’ ibn al-Haarith -- 3 men.

Of the Banu Sawad ibn Malik: 'Auf, Mu’awwidh and Mu’aadh, the sons of al-Harith and the sons of Afraa', al-Nu’maan ibn 'Amr (called Nu'aimaan according to ibn Hisham), 'Aamir ibn Mukhallad, Abd Allah ibn Qays, 'Ussaima (an ally of Ashja'), Wadii'a ibn Hamr (an ally of Juhaina), Thabit ibn Amr. (Some maintain that Abu al-Hamraa', a freedman of the al-Harith ibn Afra, was also present at Badr.) -- In all 10 men.

Of the Banu 'Aamir ibn Maalik (from the Banu 'Atiik ibn 'Amr ibn Mabdhuul): Tha’laba ibn Amr, Sahl ibn 'Atiik, al-Haarith ibn al-Ssammah, who remained behind in Rawha, yet to whom Muhammad gave his share -- 3 men.

Of the Banu 'Amr ibn Maalik, who are the sons of Hudaila (the daughter of Maalik ibn Zaid Allah): Ubayy ibn Ka’b and Anas ibn Mu’aadh -- 2 men.

Of the Banu ‘Adi ibn 'Amr ibn Maalik (sons of Ma'aalah): Aus ibn Thaabit, Abu Sheich Ubayy ibn Thaabit (the brother of Hassaan ibn Thaabit) and Abu Talha Zaid ibn Sahl -- 3 men.

Of the Banu ‘Adi ibn al-Najjaar (from the Banu ‘Adi ibn Ghanm): Haaritha ibn Suraaqa, 'Amr ibn Tha’laba (called Abu Hakiim), Saliit ibn Qays, Abu Saliit (who is Usaira ibn 'Amr), 'Amr Abu Khaarija ibn Qays, Thaabit ibn Khansaa', 'Aamir ibn Umaiyya, Muhriz ibn 'Aamir, Sawaad ibn Ghaziyya (according to others called Sawwaad, an ally from Bali) -- 8 men.

Of the Banu Haraam ibn Jundub: Abu Zaid Qays ibn Sakan, Abu al-A’war ibn al-Haarith ibn Zhaalim (according to others he was Abu al-A’war Haarith ibn Zhaalim), Sulaim ibn Milhaan and Haram ibn Milhaan -- 4 men.

Of the Banu Maazin ibn al-Najjaar (from the Banu 'Auf ibn Mabdhuul): Qays ibn Abi Saa’ssa'ah (called 'Amr), Abd Allah ibn Ka’b and 'Ussaima (their ally from the Banu Asad) -- 3 men.

Of the Banu Khansaa' ibn Mabdhuul: ‘Umayr ibn 'Aamir and Suraaqa ibn 'Amr -- 2 men.

Of the Banu Tha’laba ibn Maazin: Qays ibn Mukhallad -- 1 man.

Of the Banu Diinaar ibn al-Najjaar (from the Banu Mas’uud ibn Abd al-Ashhal): al-Nu’mann ibn 'Abd 'Amr, his brother Dahhaak, their brother on their mother's side Sulaim ibn al-Haarith, Jaabir ibn Khaalid and Sa’d ibn Suhail -- 5 men.

Of the Banu Qays ibn Maalik: Ka’b ibn Zaid and their co-vananted alliy Bujayr ibn Abi Bujair -- 2 men.

In all there were 170 Khazrajites with Muhammad in Badr.

The total number of Moslems who fought at Badr, including those to whom Muhammad granted a share in the spoils and whom he promised a reward, was 314; namely, 83 Emigrants (from Mecca), 61 Ausites (Helpers from Medina) and 170 Khazrajites (Helpers from Medina).

6.02.26 -- The Names of the Moslems who Fell at Badr

From the QURAYSH (of Mecca), 6 Moslems died at Badr:

Of the Banu Abd al-Muttalib: 'Ubaida ibn al-Haarith, killed by ‘Utba ibn Rabi’a, who cut off his leg so that he died in Safraa'.

Of the Banu Zuhra ibn Kilaab: ‘Umayr ibn Abi Waqqaas, (according to ibn Hisham, a brother of Sa’d) and Dhu al-Shimaalain ibn Abd 'Amr (their ally from Khuzaa'ah).

Of the Banu 'Adi ibn Ka'b: 'Aaqil ibn al-Bukayr (an ally from the Banu Sa'd ibn Laith) and Mihja' (a freedman of 'Umar bin al-Khattaab).

Of the Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr: Safwaan ibn Baida.

From the HELPERS (of Medina), 8 Moslems fell:

Of the Banu 'Amr ibn Auf: Sa’d ibn Khaithama and Mubash-shir ibn Abd al-Muhdhir.

Of the Banu al-Haarith ibn al-Khazraj: Yaziid ibn al-Haarith, called Fus-Hum.

Of the Banu Salama (from the tribe of the Banu Haraam): ‘Umayr ibn al-Humaam.

Of the Banu Habiib ibn Abd Haaritha: Raafi’ ibn al-Mualla.

Of the Banu al-Najjar: Haaritha ibn Suraaqa.

Of the Banu Ghanm: 'Auf and Mu'awwidh, sons of Haarith ibn Rafaa'a ibn Sawaad and his wife 'Afraa'.

* Remark: We here omit an additional list of 50 Polytheists from Mecca who were also killed in Badr: Of the Banu 'Abd Shams (12 men), of the Banu Nawfal (2 men), of the Banu Asad (5 men), of the Banu Abd al-Daar (2 men), of the Banu Taym ibn Murra (2 men), of the Banu Makhzuum (17 men) of the Banu Sahm (5 men), of the Banu Jumah (3 men) and of the Banu 'Aamir (2 men). -- Also omitted is a list of 43 prisoners from the Polytheists of Mecca who were taken at Badr. -- Finally a total of 37 pages of poetry is omitted here, poems that were declaimed by Moslems after their victory at Badr.

After his return, Muhammad remained only seven nights in Medina. Then he went out against the Banu Sulaim until he reached one of their wells, which is called al-Kudr. Here he remained three nights before returning to Medina, without having any enemy encounter. There he remained for the remaining part of Shawwal (10th month) and the month of Dhu al-Qa’da (11th month). During this time most of the Qurayshites were ransomed.*

* The setting free of captured Qurayshites became a lucrative business. Thus Muhammad elevated the practice of hostage taking in holy war to become a legal principle.

6.02.27 -- The Campaign of Sawiiq (May and June 624 A.D.)

In the month of Dhu al-Hijja (12th month) Abu Sufyan ibn Harb (from Mecca) undertook the military campaign of Sawiiq. In this year the unbelievers were in charge of the pilgrimage. According to the report of Muhammad ibn Ja’far and other competent authorities, who heard it from Abd Allah ibn Ka’b, one of the most learned among the Helpers, the following happened: when Abu Sufyan came back to Mecca with the refugees from Badr, he made a vow that no water should come upon his head for cleansing until he had gone out to war against Muhammad. To fulfil his vow, he embarked with 200 riders from the Quraysh and rode from the high plain until reaching the front of Qanat, where he set up camp on the mountain Thayb, about one stop removed from Medina.

During the night he made his way to the Banu Nadir (a Jewish tribe in Medina) and knocked on the door of Hujai bin Akhtab. When fear came upon him and he didn't open to him, he went to Sallam ibn Mishkam, at that time the head and treasurer of the Banu Nadir, and asked to be allowed in. Sallam took him in, gave him food and drink and imparted to him information over the situation in Medina. When the night was about over Abu Sufyan returned to his companions. He then sent some of his people into the region of 'Uraid, where they burned down some date groves and killed one of the Helpers along with his covenanted-ally, who were in the field. They then turned back.

When news of their attack spread, Muhammad pursued them as far as Qarqarat al-Kudr. They could not, however, catch up to them, whereupon Muhammad returned to Medina. On the way back they found provisions that the Quraysh had thrown away in order to flee more quickly. When Muhammad returned with them, the Moslems asked him: “Do you wish that this be credited to us as a holy war?” He answered: “Yes”. He had installed Abu Lubaba Bashir ibn Abd al-Muhdhir as governour of Medina. This battle was called that of Sawiiq (flour), for the unbelievers had thrown away much of their flour supply, which then fell into the hands of the believers.

6.02.28 -- The Campaigns to Dhu Amar (July 624 A.D.) and al-Furu’ by Bahran (October and November 624 A.D.)

After the battle of Sawiiq, Muhammad remained the rest of the month Dhu al-Hijja (12th month) in Medina. He then undertook a military campaign to Najd against Ghatafan, which is called the battle of Dhu Amar. During this time he installed Uthman ibn ‘Affan as governour over Medina. He remained nearly the entire month of Safar (2nd month) in Najd. Then he returned to Medina, without having encountered an enemy, where he re-mained for nearly the entire month Rabi’a al-Awwal (3rd month).

He then installed Ibn Umm Maktuum over Medina and went out again against the Quraysh. He came as far as the mines of Bahraan* in the Hijaz, in the region of al-Furu’, a village closer to Medina than to Mecca. Here he spent the entire month of Rabi’a al-Akhir (4th month) and Jumada al-Ula (5th month), without encountering an enemy, before once again returning to Medina.**

* “Bahraan” lies approx. 170 km southeast of Medina.
** Paul wrote: “If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peacea-bly with all men” (Rom. 12:18).

6.02.29 -- The Besieging of the Jewish Tribe of the Banu Qaynuqa’* in Medina (April 624 A.D.)

In the meantime, the campaign against the Banu Qaynuqa’ had drawn near, occasioned by the following: Muhammad had assembled the Banu Qaynuqa’ at their bazaar and said to them: “O you assembly of the Jews! Fear the punishment of Allah, just as it struck the Quraysh, and become Moslems! You know that I am a prophet sent from Allah. You find it in your Scriptures and possess a divine secret knowledge of it.”

* The Banu Qaynuqa' were a Jewish clan that lived in Medina.

Whereupon they answered: “O Muhammad! You hold us to be men of your people. Do not be blinded. You met people who have no idea of war. Therefore you found opportunity to defeat them. But, by Allah, if we fight with you you will see that we are men!”

Al-‘Asim reported to me that the Banu Qaynuqa' were the first Jews to break the alliance with Muhammad and to wage war against him between Badr and Uhud. Abd Allah ibn Ja’far described the clash with the Banu Qaynuqa’ as follows: “An Arab woman brought milk to sell at the market of the Banu Qaynuqa’, and sat down before the shop of a Jewish goldsmith. The Jews demanded her to remove the veil from her face, but she refused. The goldsmith then fastened the end of her dress firmly behind her back, so that the rear part of the garment came loose when she rose. The Jews laughed at her, but she screamed. A Moslem came up and killed the goldsmith. The Jews then fell upon the Moslem and killed him. The Moslems quickly called their members for help, and so war broke out between them and the Banu Qaynuqa’.” Muhammad laid seige to them, until they surrendered.*

* This description of the first civil war in Medina shows that the reasons given for this event were farfetched. In the battle of Badr, Muhammad had not gained enough booty to sustain his fighters. Now, with the acquisition of the Jewish riches, he sought to find sufficient compensation and help for his Emigrants.

After Allah had delivered them into his authority, Abd Allah ibn Ubayy came to him and asked him to deal kindly with his clients - for the Qaynuqa’ were allies of the Khazrajites. Muhammad turned away from him. Abd Allah then grasped the upper part of his coat of mail. Muhammad cried out: “Let me go!” He fell into such a rage that his face became dark red. But Abd Allah swore: “I will not let you go until you show kindness toward my allies. They are 700 warriors - including 300 among them with armour - who protect me against the red and the black.* You cannot cut them down in one morning for, by Allah, I fear that destiny will be changed.” Muhammad then responded: “Very well, I give them to you!”

* The Arabs and the Persians, or even all people, are described as the red and the black. According to some lexicographers, this designation applies only to the Bedouins (Muhit al-‘Arab). Others maintain that the red are the riders and the black are the Bedouins.

During the besiegement, which lasted 15 days, Bashir ibn Abd al-Mundhir was governour over Medina.

Abu Ishaq ibn Yasar reported: When the Qaynuq’ were waging war against Muhammad, Abd Allah ibn Ubayy came to join them. Ubada ibn al-Samit, of the Banu 'Auf, who, like Abd Allah, was their ally, went to Muhammad and betrayed them to him. Before Allah and His messenger, he renounced his alliance with them. He said: “O messenger of Allah! I take Allah, his messenger and the believers as protectors, and renounce my agreement and friendship with these unbelievers!” The following verses refer to him and Abd Allah in Sura al-Ma’ida: “51 O you who have believed, take not Jews and Christians as friends; they are friends of each other (but not of you). Whoever of you makes them his friends is one of them. Allah does not guide the people of the evildoers. 52 Now, you see those in whose hearts is sickness (e.g. Abd Allah, who said he feared a change of fortune), hurrying to come to them, saying, ‘We fear lest a turn (for the worse) of fortune should smite us (believers).’ But it may be that Allah will bring the victory, or some commandment from Him, and then they will become remorseful concerning what they kept secret within themselves” (Sura al-Maida 5:51,52).*

* The rift between Moslems and the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) grew deeper and deeper, for the latter could not accept Muhammad as a prophet. This separation became anchored in several revelations and until today counts as a divine command for all Moslems (Sura al-Maida 5:82).

6.02.30 -- The Sending of Zaid ibn Haritha to Al-Qarada (November 624 A.D.)

The following is the history of the sending of Zaid ibn Haritha to Qarada, a spring of water in Najd, where he attacked the caravan of the Quraysh, and in which Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was also travelling. Since the encounter at Badr, the Quraysh feared taking their normal route to Syria. Therefore they took the road that led via Iraq. On one occasion numerous merchants took this route, among them also Abu Sufyan. They had much silver with them, which constituted the primary commodity of their trading. They hired Furat ibn Hayyan, a man of the Banu Bakr, to lead them. Muhammad sent Zaid to the water spring in order to attack them. The entire load of goods, including beasts of burden, fell into their hands. Nevertheless, the men were able to escape. Zaid then brought the booty to Muhammad.*

* John, the one who prepared the way for Jesus, said: “Do not take money from anyone by force or accuse anyone falsely …” (Luke 3:14). The Apostle Paul said: “I have coveted no one’s silver or gold or apparel” (Acts 20:33), and Jesus revealed: “It is more blessed to give than to receive” (Acts 20:35).

6.02.31 -- The Murder of the Jew Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf near Medina (August and September 624 A.D.)

The history of Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf went as follows, according to the report of Abd Allah ibn al-Mughith. “When, following the defeat of the Quraysh, Zaid ibn Harith and Abd Allah ibn Rawaha came to Medina as messengers of Muhammad (one from the lower, the other from the upper portion of the city) to bring the believers news of the victory, Ka’b, (a man of the clan of Tayyi’, of the Banu Nubhan, whose mother was from the Banu Nadir*) said: ‘Is this true? Should Muhammad really have killed the men that Abd Allah and Zaid name to us? They are the most noble among the Arabs, the heads of mankind. By Allah, if Muhammad really did slay them then the inner part of the earth is better than its outer surface.’”

* The Banu Nadir were another Jewish tribe in Medina. Since the mother of Ka’b came from this Jewish tribe, he was considered to be a leader of the Jews. His visit in Mecca was understood to be conspiration with the enemy and regarded as a breaking of the Aqaba contract of protection.

After this enemy of Allah became convinced of the truth, he made his way to Mecca, where he dismounted at the house of Muttalib ibn Abi Wadaa ibn Dubayra, the Sahmite, whose wife Atika, daughter of Abu al-Is ibn Umaiyya, respectfully received him. He stirred up the Meccans against Muhammad and recited the following verses, in which he wept over the Qurayshites who had been thrown into the well at Badr:

The mill of Badr has crushed the fighters,
At such a disaster must many tears be shed.
The leaders of mankind were slain beside the cisterns.
May they never be forgotten!
Princes too were left lying,
How many genuine, illustrious and honourable
Were to die there,
The refuge of the hungry was slain there,
Generous givers when the stars cast their glow,
Who bore the heavy burdens, ruling
Their people well,
To whom a fourth of the booty fell,
Some people whose anger pleases me say,
The heels (Ka’b) of Ibn Ashraf are not firmly planted,
That is true,
If the earth had only split the hour they were slain,
Engulfing all her dwellers!
May him who brought forth this misery,
Be ravaged by the plague,
Or live forever, deaf and blind,
Forever in cowering fear!

Ka’b then returned to Medina, insulted the Moslems and entered into love relationships with their women. Muhammad then asked: “Who will procure me rest from the son of al-Ashraf?”* Muhammad ibn Maslama, a brother of the Banu Abd al-Ashal answered: “I, O messenger of Allah. I will slay him.” Muhammad responded: “Do it if you can!” Muhammad ibn Maslama then spent three days without eating or drinking. When Muhammad heard this, he had him called and asked him why he did not eat and drink. He answered: “I made a promise to you and do not know if I can carry it out.” - “Then you must strive to do so!” - “But sometimes we must say that which is untruth.” - “Say whatever seems good to you. It is permitted you!”**

* With this typical question Muhammad summoned his followers to treacherously assasinate his enemies.
** Lying is allowed in holy war. On several occasions Muhammad sanctioned it, thus becomming an instigator of lies. Jesus, however, is the truth in person, and gave to His disciples the Spirit of Truth, who leads them into all truth - even in critical situations.

Also joining Muhammad ibn Salama were Abu Naila Silkan ibn Salama, a foster brother of Ka’b, and Harith ibn Aus, both of the Banu al-Ashal, and Abu Abs ibn Jabr, of the Banu Haritha. They sent Silkan ahead of them to Ka’b, the enemy of Allah, who, after he had talked with him for a while and recited him some verses, said to him: “The coming of that man brought great misfortune to us. The Bedouins make us their enemies and, as one man, aim their bows at us. The roads have been cut off to us, so that our families perish and we oursleves suffer want.”*

* This statement was sheer hypocricy, uttered in order to get the enemy of Muhammad to speak confidentially.

At this Ka’b responded: “I am the son of al-Ashraf and, by Allah, I already told you earlier how this matter was going to end.”

Silkan then continued on: “I want you to sell us food provisions. We will give you a pledge of security and make a con-tract with you. In this way you will render to us a good deed.”

Ka’b asked: “Do you want to give me your children as a security pledge?” Silkan responded: “You wish to shame us. I have comrades who share my views, whom I will bring to you. Sell them food and be benevolent. As a pledge we will give you armour - even to the full value of the debt.”

Since Ka’b did not disdain weapons, he said: “Well then, the weapons will guarantee the repayment.”

Silkan informed his companions of this talk and summoned them to come to him with the weapons. They then assembled at Muhammad's place.

Muhammad then accompanied them as far as Baqi al-Gharqad. Here he said to them: “Go in the name of Allah! May Allah be with you!” Muhammad then turned back to his house - it was a night with moonlight - and the others made their way to the fortress of Ka’b.

Silkan knocked on the door. Ka’b, who had shortly before gotten married, sprang up with his blanket. His wife, however, held it firmly on one side and said: “You are a warrior, and a warrior does not go out at this hour.” Ka’b responded: “It is Silkan. If he had found me sleeping, he would not have woken me up!” She said: “I notice, by Allah, something evil in the sound of his voice!” Ka’b responded, however: “If I summoned the man to battle, he would follow me.” He then went down and talked with them for a while. They then asked: “Will you go with us to the canyon of Ajuz (outside of Medina), and there talk with us for the rest of the night? He consented and off they went together.

After a while Silkan stretched out his hand for a lock of hair on Ka’b's forehead, then smelled his hand and said: “I have never noticed a smell more pleasant than in this night.” After a while he repeated the same, until Ka’b became entirely care-free. When they had again gone a stretch, he again grabbed a lock of hair and shouted: “Kill the enemy of Allah!” They lunged at him with their swords but could not finish him.

Muhammad ibn Maslama explained: “When I saw this I remembered a dagger I had placed beside my sword. I took it and plunged it with such great force into his abdomen, such that it penetrated through him. The enemy of Allah gave out such a cry that in all the neighbouring fortresses a light went on. He then fell. Harith ibn Aus was wounded by one of our swords either on the foot or on the head. We then turned back to the Banu Umaiyya ibn Zaid, then to the Banu Quraiza, then past Bu’ath, until we climbed up the rock field of Uraid. Harith ibn Aus, who was weakened by the loss of blood, remained behind for a while. We waited for him until he came and followed us. We then, toward the end of the night, carried him to Muhammad, who was praying.* We greeted him and informed him of the death of the enemy of Allah. Muhammad spit upon the wound of our companion, whereupon we returned home to our families.”

* Muhammad accompanied this assasination with his prayers. Jesus, however, out of love for His enemies, healed the ear of Malchus (Luke 22:50-51).

The following morning the Jews were afraid because of this murder. No one felt sure of his life. Ka’b ibn Malik composed the following verse:

Ka’b remained stretched out there, upon his hands.
His death humbled the Banu Nadir.
Strong swords were drawn by us against him
By the command of Muhammad,
There in the stillness of the night,
Ka’b’s brother against him was sent.
He beguiled him and brought him down with cunning.
Mahmud is a man of faithful trust, a bold one.

Hasan ibn Thabit sang of Sallam ibn Abi al-Huqaiq and of the Murder of Ka’b and in the following verses:

May Allah bless the host you encountered,
Thou son of al-Ashraf , and thou son of al-Huqaiq!
They proudly set out against you by night with
Their light swords,
As lions in the wild thicket,
Until they reached your quarter.
They made you taste death with their sharp sword,
Trusting in the faithful support of their prophet,
Scorning any misfortune.

6.02.32 -- The Story of Muhayyisa and Huwayyisa

Muhammad once said: “Kill every Jew that falls into your hand!”* Muhayyisa ibn Aus then fell upon Ibn Sunaina, a Jewish merchant, who sold him clothes and other merchandise, and killed him. Huwayyisa, his older brother, who at that time was not yet a Moslem, reproached him and said: “You are an enemy of Allah. You have killed a man, whereby most of the fat on your body is due to what he owned!” Muhayyisa answered: “By Allah, I did it at the command of a man whom I would obey even if he demanded your head from me.” Huwayyisa then said: “If that is so, then I will convert immediately to Islam! Would you”, he continued on, “really kill me if Muhammad so commanded you?” When his brother gave an affirmative answer, he cried out: “By Allah, a religion that makes you capable of such a deed is wonderful!”** He then converted to Islam. This story was told to me by a freedman of the Banu Haritha, who heard it from a daughter of Muhayyisa. Her father himself told it to her.

* What a horrible command! What a tragic word still being carried out today, after 1,400 years of Islamic history - according to the whim of any Moslem.
** Up till then, human ties and the protection of the clan constituted the holiest law among the Arabs. If a man abandoned his clan or attacked it, he first made sure to have found a better, stronger and higher ranking clan that had taken him in and accepted him.

Muhayyisa composed the following verse:

If the son of my mother dares to reproach me,
I will be commanded to kill him,
His brain, when I strike him, will hang
From a sword, shining and sharp, clear and
Polished like salt.
It pains me not, if I kill you
While obeying him.
To us belongs everything between Bosra and Ma’rib
(between Syria and Yemen)

Abu Ubaida reported to me about Abu Umar from Medina: “When Muhammad conquered the (Medinan Jewish tribe of the) Banu Quraiza, he gave the command to go out against 400 men, who were allies of the Aus against the Khazradj, and to decapitate them.* The Khazrajites carried out this command with joy; the Ausites, however, appeared later to be dissatisfied. Muhammad thought they were annoyed because of the alliances that had stood between them and the Quraiza. So he handed over the remaining twelve men of the Banu Quraiza to the Ausites and commanded each two of the Ausites to execute one Jew. The one was to strike him, and the other was to completely kill him. Among these twelve was also Ka’b ibn Yahudha, one of the most highly regarded among the Banu Quraiza. He was to be executed by Muhayyisa and Abu Burda ibn Nahar.

* This command of Muhammad's - to decapitate 400 enemies - was a command to commit mass murder.

Muhayyisa was to strike him a blow and Abu Burda was to finish him off. Muhayyisa struck him a blow with his sword, which, however, did not sever his head. Abu Burda then finished him off. Huwayyisa, who at that time was still an unbeliever, said to his brother: “You have killed Ka’b, although, by Allah, most of the fat on your body stems from his goods. You are a despicable man.” Muhayyisa answered: “Someone ordered me to kill him, whom I would even obey if he demanded your head from me.” Huwayyisa was shocked by these words and left him. It was later reported: In the night he awakened and thought with amazement about the words of his brother. In the morning he cried out: “By Allah, that is a true faith!”* He went to Muhammad and became a Moslem.”

* A faith that does not result in holy love is dead (James 2:19-20). Christ never commanded any of His followers to kill his enemies or opponents, but to love and bless them.

In Shawwal (10th month) of the third year, the Quraish went out against Muhammad in the Battle of Uhud

6.03 -- TEST

Dear reader,
If you have carefully studied this volume, you will easily be able to answer the following questions. Whoever can answer 90% of the questions in the 11 volumes of this series correctly, will receive from our center a written certificate of recognition on:

Advanced Studies
on the life of Muhammad in light of the Gospel

- as an encouragement in future service for Christ.

  1. How did the Battle of Badr come about?
  2. How did Abu Sufyan react when he came to understand that his caravan was to be attacked?
  3. What is the difference between the angel Gabriel, who sup-ported Muhammad at the Battle of Badr and the angel who strengthened Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane?
  4. Why did Muhammad forbid the killing of most polytheist prisoners at the Battle of Badr?
  5. How did Muhammad react when Abu Jahl was killed?
  6. What advantage did Muhammad and his Moslems have in their victory at Badr?
  7. What are the most important principles that were revealed to the Moslems in Sura 8 al-Anfal (the Booty)?
  8. How many Moslems died in the Battle of Badr? How many polytheists lost their lives?
  9. Why was the Jewish tribe of the Qaynuqa’ in Medina be-sieged by Muhammad? How did Muhammad's confronta-tion with these Jews end?
  10. Who was Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf and what did he do? Why was he murdered by Moslems in Medina?

Every participant taking part in this test is allowed to use, for the purpose of answering the questions, any book that stands available to him or ask any trustworthy person he chooses. We await your written answers, including your complete address on paper or e-mail. We pray to Jesus, the living Lord, for you, that He might call, send, lead, strengthen, preserve and be with you each day of your life!

United with you in the service of Jesus,
Abd al-Masih and Salam Falaki.

Send your answers to:
POBox 1806
70708 Fellbach

Or per e-mail to:


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